Electrode Reference Chart
This reference chart is a guide to the properties and usage of common arc welding electrodes. These are generic properties, there will be exceptions. Some manufacturers classify electrodes differently to other manufacturers and some electrodes do not fall perfectly into one category.
|Electrode||Current type||OCV||Position||Fillet/ Butt||Finish||Penetration||Spatter||Arc Strength||Arc Gap||Touch arc||Common name/ Type||Notes|
|6010||DC+||High||All||B||Poor||High||High||High||Variable||No||Cellulosic||Mostly used in pipe welding. High hydrogen weld content.|
|6011||AC DC+/-||High||All||B||Poor||High||High||High||Variable||No||Cellulosic||As above|
|6012||AC DC -||Any||D/ OH/ H/ V.up||F/B||Good||Med||High||Med||Variable||Yes||Rutile||Once popular, superceded by Low Hyd and 6013 electrodes.|
|6013||AC DC+/-||Any||D/ OH/ H/ V.up/ V.dn -some||F/B||Best||Low||V.Low||V.Low||Variable||Yes||Rutile||General purpose electrode.|
|7014||AC DC+/-||Any/High||D/ H||F||Good||Low||Low||Low||Variable||Yes||Iron Powder||High efficiency electrode|
|7015||DC+||High||D/ OH/ H/ V.up||B||Good||High||High||Med||Tight||No||Low Hydrogen/ Basic||Good positional electrode, high strength deposit.|
|7016||AC DC+/-||Any/High||D/ OH/ H/ V.up||B||Good||High||High||Med||Tight||No||Low Hydrogen/ Basic||Good positional electrode, high strength deposit.|
|7018||AC DC+/-||Any/High||D/ OH/ H/ V.up||F/B||Good||High||Low||Med||Tight||No||Low Hydrogen/ Basic||Good positional electrode, high strength deposit, high efficiency|
|7024||AC DC+/-||Any/High||D /H||F||Good||Low||V.Low||V.Low||Variable||Yes||Iron Powder||High efficiency electrode|
OCV - Rods referred to as Any/High vary with manufacturer. Some makes will need a high OCV.
Position - D - Downhand/ Flat, OH - Overhead, H - Horizontal, V.up - Vertical Up, V.Down - Vertical Down. If in bold, rod is particularly suited to this position.
Arc Gap - Tight means the arc must be kept as tight as possible to ensure weld quality. Risk of pinholes/porosity and high hydrogen content in weld.
Rod drying - Cellulosic rods normally need no drying. All other rods should be kept dry. Low Hydrogen rods should be dried/baked before use according to manufacturers instructions.
60xx, 70xx etc refers to strength of weld material. Higher values are available eg 80xx, 90xx, for specialist uses. Additional designations, eg 7018-1, may refer to low temperature impact values
"High Efficiency" electrodes have a flux high in iron, which adds to the quantity of weld deposited.
The most commonly available electrodes in the UK are E6013 types, followed by E7018. In the US the E7014 is also popular. Other designations tend to be used for specific purposes in industry and may be difficult to obtain or uneconomic for the home user. E6013 are easy to use and store; E7018 are a good freeze/fill positional electrode but require careful storage and use. E7016 are normally identical to E7018 but with a thinner flux coating, hence are ideal for V.Up welds. E6010/6011 electrodes have a very thin coating, a strong harsh arc, can operate in any position and are a highly controllable rooting rod, but should be capped with other rods to avoid cracking.
Other common types: Stainless steel rods are manufactured in many grades and types and will be specific to use/ position etc. Common grades include 308l, 309l, 312, 316l.
Electrodes are available in many other materials for many uses. Manufacturers websites/ data sheets/ technical departments should be consulted for type, use and availability.